Tooth Decay Causes and Treatment

Tooth decay causes and treatment

Tooth Decay Causes and Treatment

Tooth decay refers to the gradual loss of material from the tooth. It occurs because of a complex range of interacting factors, notably a person’s diet and their dental care routine. It can impact the appearance of the teeth and can lead to pain and discomfort and even infected dental nerve, especially when it results in a cavity in the tooth.

Everyone’s mouth contains bacteria and if a person’s diet is high in sugar, then the bacteria is able to thrive. Bacteria collects the plaque that builds up on our teeth. By consuming sugar for energy, the bacteria produces a waste product of acid that can eat away at the surface of the tooth.

Tooth decay may be noticeable as a discoloured section of the tooth, for example an overly white or black area. However, it may not even be visible from the outside of the tooth – until other symptoms start to appear. Signs and symptoms of tooth decay include:

  • Painful teeth or toothache – with less mineral to protect the centre of the tooth, it is easier for outside influences like pressure from biting or liquid from drinking to irritate the centre of the tooth. This pain may also occur at random. It also commonly occurs when eating or drinking hot or cold food and drink.
  • Stained teeth – black or white, or even brown stains are common.
  • Swelling – in the gums and the face and can be associated with gingivitis and gum disease.

Advice from your dentist on preventing tooth decay

We would all rather avoid getting tooth decay at all. As can be judged from the above list of symptoms, tooth decay is not a pleasant disease of the teeth to encounter. It can be painful, unsightly, and pave the way to more serious issues such as a dental abscess.

See below for some tips on preventing decay from occurring in the first place:

  • Visit your dentist regularly and establish a six-monthly check-up This is important for a number of reasons:
  • Firstly, your dentist will be able to detect decay in its early stages, hopefully before it has caused cavities or penetrated into the centre of the tooth where it may cause more serious issues.
  • Your dental professional may be able to treat decay at this stage with tailored advice on health habits and fluoride treatment. They can also undertake an X-ray if necessary to stop ‘invisible’ decay – because decay is not always notable through external examination.
  • Consider fissure sealants if you have fissures in your teeth that make them prone to decay. Your dental practitioner or other dentist near me will be able to assess your suitability for this procedure.
  • Have a dental hygiene clean at your dental specialist. This will remove plaque from the teeth in a way that your toothbrush is not able to, because your dentist has access to specific tools and techniques. This is true of calculus, which refers to hardened plaque.
  • At home, make sure you are doing everything you should be to look after your teeth. Your dentist can provide you with advice so you can do this confidently and in the correct manner. Their advice may relate to areas of the mouth you are failing to brush and floss. It may also relate to the type of toothbrush, toothpaste, and other cleaning paraphernalia.
  • Reduce your consumption of sugary food and drink. By consuming food and drink that is high in sugar content, a person may create the ‘perfect storm’ that allows bacteria and therefore acid to result in tooth decay. There are many obvious foods to cut, but also consider less obvious foods that are high in sugar – such as fruit juice – and whether you can reduce your sugar intake in hot beverages.
  • Stay hydrated. Water consumption can help to fend off tooth decay by a number of mechanisms. Firstly, water (especially tap water) may contain fluoride which can strengthen the teeth. Secondly, if we are properly hydrated, we are able to produce the necessary levels of saliva. Saliva helps to keep the teeth clean and can help to resist decay in its early stages. Also look at what might be causing a lack of saliva or ‘dry mouth’, such as drinking too much coffee or smoking.

Your dentist provides essential guidance for maintaining optimal oral health. The recommendations include a thorough oral care routine, emphasizing the importance of brushing with fluoride toothpaste at least twice daily and incorporating regular flossing to ensure comprehensive plaque removal. Choosing snacks with lower sugar content is advised to mitigate the risk of tooth decay.

In addition to these daily practices, your dentist may propose dental sealants for the molars, offering an extra layer of protection against cavities. Routine check-ups, scheduled in consultation with your dentist, play a pivotal role in monitoring and addressing any emerging dental concerns. This comprehensive approach fosters a professional collaboration aimed at preserving the integrity of your teeth and promoting enduring oral health.

Treating existing tooth decay at your dental clinic

How it is treated will depend on the issue it is causing you. If the issue is cosmetic, your dentist will still want to support you to reduce the likelihood of decay in the future. Many cosmetic dental treatments work best with teeth that are otherwise strong and healthy. You may discuss with your dentist treatments including teeth whitening, dental veneers, and dental crowns, and they will be able to advise on whether you are a suitable candidate for cosmetic treatments at your dentist.

If your tooth decay has resulted in a cavity, then the treatment may centre on filling this cavity using a dental filling. Fillings may be made of many different materials including porcelain, composite resin, amalgam, ceramic, and even gold with the choice of material depending on need and placement in the mouth. A filling is helpful in restoring the structural integrity of the tooth so it can comfortably bite, chew and function again. They can also prevent further damage from occurring to the tooth.

If your tooth decay has resulted in a cavity that has resulted in infected dental nerve or a dental abscess, then you may require a more extensive procedure, called a root canal procedure at your orthodentist. This is a filling, but for the damaged inside of the tooth, which is also referred to as endodontic treatment. Your dental professional will drill a hole into the tooth, remove the dental nerve, then fill and seal the space. A crown may be placed over the affected tooth, to restore its function while still retaining the natural tooth root.

Understanding the causes and treatment of tooth decay is pivotal for maintaining optimal oral health. Poor oral hygiene, sugary diets, and a lack of regular dental care contribute to the development of cavities and decay. The prevention and early intervention of tooth decay involve adopting a comprehensive oral care routine, including regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups.

Treatment for tooth decay typically involves removing the decayed portion of the tooth and restoring it with fillings or other dental restorations. The advancement of dental technology has provided various options for restoring teeth while prioritizing both functionality and aesthetics.

Furthermore, proactive measures such as fluoride applications, dental sealants, and maintaining a balanced diet contribute to the prevention of tooth decay. Education on proper oral care practices and regular visits to the dentist play crucial roles in preserving a healthy and radiant smile.

Ultimately, the key lies in a collaborative effort between individuals and dental professionals to create a foundation for a lifetime of good oral health, preventing the progression of tooth decay and ensuring a confident and vibrant smile.



    Please complete your information below to apply for a free Dental Implant Consultation.

    Our Team will notify you within 1 business day if you qualify.

    Please Note: Due to a very high demand, we are only offering a limit of 10 new applicants per month. Please complete your details and we will advise you whether you are successful for this month, otherwise we can move you to our waitlist or for next months allocation.

    1. Have you ever had a Dental Implant?

    2. Choose which stage you may be at:

    3. Location of desired implant

    4. Please enter your details below:


    Phone Number



      main-logoinvisalign logo

      Please complete your information below to
      apply for a free Invisalign Consultation.

      Our Team will notify you within 1 business day if you qualify.

      Please Note: Due to a very high demand, we are only offering a limit of 10 new applicants per month. Please complete your details and we will advise you whether you are successful for this month, otherwise we can move you to our waitlist or for next months allocation.

      When did you last visit the dentist?

      When it comes to your smile, what’s your biggest challenge or concern?

      How long have you considered improving your smile?

      What’s your main motivation for wanting to change your smile?

      When are you looking to achieve your dream smile by? Please be as specific as possible so we can make sure we can get it done in time.

      Do you have Private Health Insurance? (The reason we ask is that you may be eligible for instant rebates via HICAPS).

      Would you like more information about our interest-free Invisalign payment plans?

      What’s your age (Used to give a personalised recommendation).

      First Name

      Last Name


      Mobile Number (Our team will call you on this number).